that the sub-dominants quickly regained reproductive function even in the presence of the queen's bedding and thus it was concluded that primer pheromones do not seem to play a role in suppressing reproductive function. A b c Muller,. In some, the dominance status of an individual is clearly visible, eliminating the need for agonistic behavior. 7 In great tits and pied flycatchers, high-ranking individuals experience higher resting metabolic rates and therefore need to consume more food in order to maintain fitness and activity levels compared to subordinates in their groups. As expected, the individual who emerges triumphant is rewarded with the dominant status, having demonstrated his/her physical superiority.